Adverbs in -ως in Documents of Graeco-Roman Egypt
This book is part of an ongoing research to investigate adverbials in the ancient Greek language. This first volume is devoted to the use of the adverbs in -ως in texts from Graeco-Roman Egypt. It deals with lexicographical, papyrological and stylistic issues and may help to fill a gap in the research into the use of the Greek language in Graeco-Roman Egypt.
The adverbs in -ως are formed mainly from adjectives or participles and are characteristic for their ability to imply Manner (sometimes combined with other values, such as Time, Instrument etc.). Kretschmer and Locker (1963, 537-541) record c. 580 adverbs ending in -ως, while Foris (1970) has listed 4683 adverbs (1863 adverbs with -ῶς perispomenon and 2820 adverbs with -ως paroxytone), but certainly we have found many other adverbs that were not included in these works. Our aim was to provide papyrologists, epigraphists and philologists with a source of the attestations of adverbs in -ως and their meanings, use and sense in the documentary sources coming from Egypt. Therefore, this book functions, firstly, as a dictionary, since it provides entries on the Greek adverbs in -ως, which are attested in Egypt in the Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine period, and secondly, as a concordance of these attestations, which are arranged in a chronological sequence. We included rather extensive quotations of the text of the papyri or inscriptions (with spelling accuracy indicated either by following the rules of the use of the papyrological symbols, or by putting the correct form in brackets) in order to clarify the context in which the adverb is used, with the hope that this might be convenient and useful not only for classicists, but also for the general interested reader. This practice should allow readers simply to glance at the entry to check for themselves how a particular adverb was used in a particular context or in a variety of contexts. Likewise, we have also included translations of some passages when we considered that the understanding of the passage in a given context seemed confusing or problematic, or that a translation could help to indicate better how we should construct the adverb in the clause. In most cases we follow the translations (also in German, French or Italian) given in the first editions, and sometimes with our minor alterations.
In the era of the internet and digital humanities one may reasonably question the need for printed dictionaries, given the disadvantage that they cannot be updated frequently. Actually, there are several reasons to justify the present printed book. For this study we had to check the editions, the photographs and the commentaries of all the texts where the adverbs in -ως were read and restored in the papyrological and epigraphical sources (dated to the Graeco-Roman period) in Egypt. Our aim was to produce a database with all the certain attestations, free from proposed restorations or non-existant formations (although in some cases the interventions and proposals of the previous editors could be considered possible). In current databases, printed or online dictionaries, these restorations were offered as certain and as self-evident. When we finished this work, we observed that the result produced many corrections which could be published in many and various forms of articles or short papyrological notes, but could not provide a full understanding of the function of these adverbs. In addition, this work offers a number of rather minor additions and corrections to LSJ and its supplements. In cases where we are unable to understand the use or the general or specific sense, we write it explicitly in order that the reader might find a solution. The same is true of the cases where we are not certain about a reading or restoration and we cannot provide any solution. We did not sidestep the problem, but we used the adjective “debatable”, which may invite readers to extend our research and to try to restore the text with certainty. For these reasons, we have summarized and listed all these cases in the Index Videant doctiores! (p. 289).
At the same time, this book represents part of research into the language of the private letters in the Greek and Latin papyri. This research deals with the question “How many words (and of which parts of speech) were used in the everyday written language of the people in Egypt during the Graeco-Roman period?” The results of this research concerning the extent to which adverbs in -ως are used in the private letters were also incorporated in this book, which is the first work in a series of books or articles. In the general introduction the first part provides an outline of the main usage of the adverbs in -ως from antiquity to nowadays, and the second part explains the reasons for the necessity of studying this part of speech and focuses on specific aspects of the results of the research concerning the use of these adverbs in the private letters. The reason why private letters are chosen for this first study is because in most cases by sending a private letter written on a piece of papyrus or on an ostracon, people want to convey their thoughts and the reason they write in a few words. The same can be assumed, even if their thoughts are complex, especially when the writer expects the reader to know the basic details of a situation. Therefore, it is interesting to investigate the role of these concise adverbs (one word – one meaning) in the conciseness of these usually short private letters. In addition, to write a personal or business letter and send it to someone requires a certain relationship between the reader and the writer. It would be strange and illogical to assume that this relationship does not affect the register of the language. We examine if the certain use of the adverbs affects the communication. As it seems, most of the adverbs are found once in the private letters, which means that the person who used them had a certain purpose in mind. In such cases if the language of the rest of the personal private letter does not provide further details, we cannot say with certainty if the style is formal or informal, and therefore, to contribute to the purpose of the letter. In addition, the adverbs in -ως include a subjunctive sense when they are used, which sometimes confuses the clarity, so we have to assume that it was necessary that the recipient of the letter was well aware of the situation under discussion. If the rest of the text of the private letter or if the text which belongs to an archive with further available context allows, we can draw some conclusions. Otherwise, for the time being, we can only indicate the particular use.
The term “private letter” is used for all letters that are written between two individuals, even officials, for personal communication, and they are not part of official correspondence. In that sense, the business letters are also considered as private ones. “Private documents” include –apart from the private letters– a variety of documents such as private transactions, contracts, receipts, etc. “Official documents” are those which involve officials and could have been written as part of a public procedure, e.g. official correspondence and circulars, petitions, tax documents, etc.
In his MA thesis in the University of Crete, Department of Philology, Rethymnon (2015) Georgios Triantafyllou worked on the adverbs in -ως which indicate Time, directly or indirectly, as they appear in the private letters. He wrote the chapter “The adverbs in -ως”, pp. 1-8, and the chapter concerning the adverbs indicating “Time” in Observations, on pp. 21-24. His work on the following 58 adverbs, after its update, has been incorporated here: ἀγρύπνως, ἀδιακωλύτως, ἀδιαλείπτως, ἀενάως, αἰφνιδίως, αἰωνίως, ἀκαίρως, ἀκωλύτως, ἀνελλείπτως, ἀνελλιπῶς, ἀνεμποδίστως, ἀνεπικωλύτως, ἀνόκνως/ἀόκνως, ἀνυπερθέτως, ἀπαύστως, ἀπερισπάστως, ἀπροόπτως, ἀπροσδοκήτως, ἀπροσκέπτως, ἀρτίως, ἄφνως, βραδέως, γοργῶς, διαταχαίως, διαφόρως, διηνεκῶς, δυενιαυσίως, δυσόκνως, ἐκπροθέσμως, ἐμπροθέσμως, ἐνδελεχῶς, ἐνιαυσιαίως, ἐνιαυσίως, ἐπειγμένως, ἐτησίως, εὐθέως, εὐκαίρως, εὐμαρῶς, εὐτάκτως, εὐχαιροτέρως, ἡμερησίως, ἡμερουσίως, μηνιαίως, ὀκνηρῶς, ὀψίμως, προθύμως, προπετῶς, πρωιμότερον, πρώτως, πυκνῶς, σπανίως, συνεχῶς, συντόμως, συχνῶς, ταχέως, ὑπογύως/ὑπογύιως, ὠκαίως (= ὠκέως?). He also studied the adverbials (τὸ) τάχος, κατὰ τάχο(υ)ς, which were incorporated in the entry ταχέως, the adverb παραχρῆμα, which was incorporated in the entry εὐθέως, and the adverb οὕτως. Nikos Litinas wrote the rest of the “General Introduction” and worked on the other 500 adverbs in -ως and their use in the private letters. He also wrote Appendix I (on p. 271) concerning the adverbs ending in -ί and -εί, -δην and -δόν. We studied all the examples of the adverbs in -ως occurring in the private letters which were published until 2016. Only some editions of papyri, which appeared afterwards as book editions or as journal articles were considered, therefore the evidence based on these publications is not extensively included. The total number of entries is 561. After the completion of our study, we were pleased to see that our primary results were true of all new instances provided in these new editions. The adverbs occurring in private letters are marked with an asterisk (*), which is placed after them in their entry.
As for the micro-organization of the entries, even though the adverbs are listed in alphabetical order, the structure of the entries is not the same, since it depends on the use in the private letters. It usually takes the following form: translation and the basic meanings and the various uses and senses that these adverbs could acquire within a certain context, based on LSJ, Bauer, Lampe and LBG, and the texts of the Greek inscriptions; attestation(s) in the Greek literature, and where we consider necessary, with full citations from Greek authors, earliest or latest attestations of the adverb, with remarks on its use and various possible points of interest, which are related to the position of the adverbs in the clause or the sentence, the syntactical constructions, the modified constituents, and other notes that could provide information for the user, such as concerning the style, the way the context contributes to a certain expected or unexpected meaning, collocations, morphological regularities or specificities. References to the secondary literature are made where necessary. This secondary literature is not included in the General Bibliography (p. v). We include expanded or explanatory pieces on entries concerning the use of the adverbs in the private letters. Since in most cases the adverbs in -ως occur only once or very few times in the private letters, the relevant passages are quoted. However, references are made to other types of documents as well, and occasionally there is a further discussion of adverbs in -ως in these documents. In this book, the entries concerning adverbs which are attested in documents other than private letters contain only the meaning and the occurrences of the adverb, and in some cases we have posed questions mainly concerning its sense and use, its position in the clause, and the modification it provides, especially when this is not clear. The purpose was to show that from the numerous adverbs which existed (as mentioned above, more than 4700 adverbs in -ως in the Greek language) and were probably known, only 558 were used in the everyday texts in Graeco-Roman Egypt, and almost half of them (228 adverbs, that is c. 41%) were used in private letters, and again almost half of them (c. 52%) are attested only once in the private letters (see p. 14). Obtaining results of a statistical analysis based just on a few surviving ancient findings would be flimsy and not convincing, but in our opinion, this comparative study is a reliable guide because it allows us to see which adverbs were used in each type of document and in which situations. When the adverbs occur both in the private and the official documents, only the results concerning the private letters are discussed, since these adverbs can provide a characteristic parallel or some additional information concerning the textual use of adverbs in the private letters. However, the study of the use of the adverbs in the official and legal clauses of the documents will appear in a future volume of this series. Such a study is uncommon in the papyrological editions, with few and recent exceptions, such as that of Thomas Backhuys in P.Köln XVI 651, pp. 199-202, 7-8n.
Furthermore, the comparative and superlative forms of the adverbs in -ως, which are attested in the private letters, are also discussed in order to indicate their morphological variations and how they are used ‒similarly or differently‒ from the positive degree. In some cases, when the positive degree of these adverbs does not occur in the papyrological documents, and we have examples of only the comparative or superlative degree, it is placed in rectangular brackets [ ]. In addition, in the following books or articles, studies concerning the use of the adverbs instead of other corresponding expressions, such as oblique cases, prepositional expressions etc. will appear. Some first observations were included in the entries, or see footnote 38 in the General Introduction.
The appendices concern the adverbs ending in -ί and -εί, -δην and -δόν, ghost-adverbs, and adverbs rejected and corrected. At the end of the book we have also included two indexes: (a) a reverse index of the adverbs, and (b) an index of the adverbs, in which we have also included the adverbs which should be disregarded, indicating them with a strikethrough text formatting.
Alexiadou, A. 2013. Adverbial and Adjectival Modification. In: M. den Dikken (ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Generative Syntax. Cambridge Handbooks in Language and Linguistics. New York, 458-484.
Anghelina, C. 2007. On Some Adverbs with Variable Endings in Ancient Greek. Glotta 83:1-12.
Austin, J.R., S. Engelberg and G. Rauh. 2013. Current Issues in the Syntax and Semantics of Adverbials. In: J. R. Austin, S. Engelberg and G. Rauh (edd.), Adverbials; The Interplay between Meaning, Context, and Syntactic Structure. Linguistik Aktuell / Linguistics Today 70. Amsterdam; Philadelphia, 1-44.
Bagnall, R.S. and R. Cribiore. 2006. Women's Letters from Ancient Egypt, 300 B.C.-A.D. 800. With Contributions by Evie Ahtaridis. Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Baillet, J., 1920-1926. Inscriptions grecques et latines des tombeaux des rois ou Syringes à Thèbes. Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale du Caire, Mémoires publiés par les membres, 42. Cairo.
Bernand, A. 1992. La Prose sur pierre dans l’Égypte hellénistique et romaine. Paris.
Bernand, É. 1969. Inscriptions métriques de l’Égypte gréco-romaine. Recherches sur la poésie épigrammatique des Grecs en Égypte. Annales littéraires de l’Université de Besançon, 98. Paris.
Blass F., A. Debrunner and F. Rehkopf. 1984. Grammatik des neutestamentlichen Griechisch. 16. durchgesehene Auflage. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
Bonner, C. 1941. Four Lexicographical Notes. AJPh 62:451-459.
Cagnat, R. (with J.F. Toutain and P. Jouguet). 1908. Inscriptiones graecae ad res romanas pertinentes, Vol. 1.5. Paris.
Cervin, R.S. 1990. Word Order in Ancient Greek: VSO, SVO, SOV, or all of the above? University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Ph.D.
Chapa, J. 1998. Letters of Condolence in Greek Papyri. Papyrologica Florentina XXIX, Firenze.
Chomsky, N. 1995. The Minimalist Program. Current Studies in Linguistics. Cambridge, MA; London.
Chomsky, N. 1966 (32009). Cartesian Linguistics; A Chapter in the History of Rationalist Thought. Cambridge.
Cinque, G. 1999. Adverbs and Functional Heads: A Cross-Linguistic Perspective. Oxford Studies in Comparative Syntax. New York; Oxford.
Clarysse, W. 2011. Departure without Saying Goodbye: A Lexicographical Study. BASP 48:141-148
Clarysse, W. 2017. From Anger to Agony. Emotions in Private Letters on Papyrus. AncSoc 47:63-86.
Cooper, G.L. 1997. Attic Greek Prose Syntax (after K.W. Krüger), 2 volumes. Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Cresswell, M.J. 1985. Adverbial Modification; Interval Semantics and Its Rivals. Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy 28. Dordrecht; Boston; Lancaster; Tokyo.
Cuvigny, H. 2012. ‘Quand Hèroïs Aura Accouché...’; ἐάν = ὅταν dans l’expression de l’éventuel. BIFAO 112:97-99.
Davies, D.P. 1976. The Position of Adverbs in Luke. In: J.K. Elliot (ed.), Studies in New Testament Language and Text: Essays in Honour of George D. Kilpatrick on the occasion of his sixty-fifth Birthday. Leiden.
Decker, R.J. 1997. The Use of Euthus (“Immediately”) in Mark. The Journal of Ministry and Theology; A Ministry of Baptist Bible Seminary 1. 1:90-121.
Devauchelle, D. and G. Wagner. 1984. Les Graffites du Gebel Teir: Textes démotiques et grecques. Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale, Recherches d’archéologie, philologie et d’histoire, 22. Cairo.
Dickey, E. 2009. The Greek and Latin Languages in the Papyri. In: R.S. Bagnall (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Papyrology. Oxford, 149-169.
den Dikken, Μ. (ed.). 2013. The Cambridge Handbook of Generative Syntax. Cambridge Handbooks in Language and Linguistics. New York.
Eszes, B. 2009. Aspect and Adverb Interpretation; The Case of Quickly. In: K.É. Kiss (ed.), Adverbs and Adverbial Adjuncts at the Interfaces. Berlin, 269-294.
Evans, T.V. and D.D. Obbink (edd.). 2010. The Language of the Papyri. Oxford.
Evelyn-White, Hugh G. and J.H. Oliver. 1938. The Temple of Hibis in El Khārgeh Oasis. Part II. Greek Inscriptions, Publications of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Egyptian Expedition, 14. New York.
Exler, F.X.J. 1923. The Form of the Ancient Greek Letter: A Study in Greek Epistolography. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America.
Foris, B.D. (= Φόρης, Β.Δ.) 1970. Ἀντίστροφος πίνακας τῶν ἐπιρρημάτων σὲ -ως τῆς ἀρχαίας ἑλληνικῆς (= Rückläufiger Index der auf -ως endenden Adverbien der altgriechischen Sprache) Ἀριστοτέλειον Πανεπιστήμιον Θεσσαλονίκης. Ἐπιστημονικὴ Ἐπετηρὶς Φιλοσοφικῆς Σχολῆς, Παράρτημα ἀριθμ. 16. Θεσσαλονίκη.
Frohwein, E. 1868. De adverbiis graecis. In G. Curtius, G. (ed.), Studien zur griechischen und lateinischen Grammatik. Erstes Heft. Leipzig, 63-132.
George, H.C. 2014. Expressions of Time in Ancient Greek. Cambridge Classical Studies. Cambridge.
Gignac, F.T. 1976. A Grammar of the Greek Papyri of the Roman and Byzantine Periods, 2 volumes. Milano.
Gildersleeve, B. L. 1900-1911. Syntax of Classical Greek from Homer to Demosthenes, 2 volumes. New York; Cincinnati; Chicago.
Goodwin, W.W. 1900. A Greek Grammar. Boston.
Hanson, A.E. and P.J. Sijpesteijn. 1994. Three Papyri from the Princeton University Collection. ZPE 103:41-51.
Haspelmath, M. 1997. From Space to Time; Temporal Adverbials in the World’s Languages. Lincom Studies in Theoretical Linguistics 03. München; Newcastle.
Hasselbrook, D.S. 2011. Studies in New Testament Lexicography. Advancing toward a Full Diachronic Approach with the Greek Language, Untersuchungen zur Lexikographie des Neues Testaments. Ein Beitrag zu einem vollständig diachronen Ansatz zur Erforschung des Griechischen. Tübingen.
Hasselgard, H. 2010. Adjunct Adverbials in English. Studies in English Language. New York.
Humbert, J. 1945 (31960). Syntaxe Grecque. Collection de Philologie Classique II. Paris: Librairie C. Klincksieck.
Hussein, Adel. 2000. Le sanctuaire rupestre de Piyris à Ayn al-Labakha. Mémoires de l’IFAO. 116. Cairo.
Iber, F. 1914. Adverbiorum Graecorum in -ως Cadentium Historia Usque ad Isocratis Tempora Pertinens. Diss. Marburg.
Jacobson, S. 1980. Contextual Influences on Adverb Placement in English. SL 34.2:135-140.
Katz, G. 2008. Manner Modification of State Verbs. In: L. McNally and C. Kennedy (edd.), Adjectives and Adverbs; Syntax, Semantics, and Discourse. Oxford Studies in Theoretical Linguistics. Oxford; New York, 220-248.
Kraus, Th.J. 1999. Slow Writers-βραδέως γράφοντες: What, How Much, and How Did They Write? Eranos 97:86-97.
Kretschmer, P. and E. Locker, 1963. Rückläufiges Wöterbuch der griechischen Sprache. 2. Auflage mit Ergänzungen von G. Kisser, Göttingen, Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht.
Kühner, R. 1836 (31892). Ausführliche Grammatik der Griechischen Sprache, 1. Elementar- und Formenlehre. Zweiter Band. Hannover.
Kühner, R. 1836 (31898). Ausführliche Grammatik der Griechischen Sprache, 2. Satzlehre. Erster Band. Hannover; Leipsig.
Kühner, R. 1836 (31904). Ausführliche Grammatik der Griechischen Sprache, 2. Satzlehre. Zweiter Band. Hannover; Leipsig.
Larson, R.K. 1988. On the Double Object Construction. Linguistic Inquiry 19:335-391
Lasnik, H. and R. Hendrick. 2003. Steps toward a Minimal Theory of Anaphora. In: R. Hendrick (ed.), Minimalist Syntax. Generative Syntax. Malden, MA; Oxford; Carlton, 124-151.
Lefebvre, G. 1907. Recueil des inscriptions grecques-chrétiennes d’Égypte. Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale du Caire, Mémoires publiés par les membres 101. Paris.
Leiwo, M. 2010. Imperatives and Other Directives in the Letters from Mons Claudianus. In: T. Evans and D. Obbink (edd.), Language of the Papyri, Oxford, 97-119.
Litinas, N. 2004. Punctuation Matters in Some Papyri. In: H. Harrauer and R. Pintaudi (edd.), Gedenkschrift Ulrike Horak (P.Horak). Papyrologica Florentina XXXIV. Firenze, 285-288.
Louw, J.P., E.A. Nida, R.B. Smith and K.A. Munson. 1988. Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament Based on Semantic Domains, 1. Introduction & Domains. New York.
Lycan, W.G. 2000 (22008). Philosophy of Language; a Contemporary Introduction. Routledge Contemporary Introductions to Philosophy. New York.
Matthaios, S. 2005. Aristarch, die Tékhnai Grammatikaí und Apollonios Dyskolos zum Adverb. Zur Geschichte einer Wortkategorie in der griechischen Grammatik. Histoire Épistémologie Langage 27-2:93-120.
Matthaios, S. 2007. Das Adverb in der Grammatikographie der griechischen Antike. In: A. Kärnä and S. Matthaios (edd.), Das Adverb in der Grammatikographie. Teil I. Themenheft, Beiträge zur Geschichte der Sprachwissenschaft 17. Münster, 13-58.
Mayser, E. 1933-1934. Grammatik der griechischen Papyri aus der ptolemäerzeit mit Einschlüss der gleichzeitigen Ostraka und der in Ägypten verfassten Inschriften, Band II 2, Satzlehre. Analytischer Teil. Zweite Hälfte. Berlin; Leipzig.
Mayser, E. 1936. Grammatik der griechischen Papyri aus der ptolemäerzeit mit Einschlüss der gleichzeitigen Ostraka und der in Ägypten verfassten Inschriften, Band I. Laut- und Wortlehre, III. Teil. Stammbildung, 2nd ed. 1936. Berlin; Leipzig.
Meyer, G. 1880. Griechische Grammatik. Bibliothek Indogermanischer Grammatiken III. Leipzig.
Milne, Joseph G. 1905. Greek Inscriptions. Service des Antiquités de l’Égypte: Catalogue géneral des antiquités égyptiennes du Musée du Caire. Oxford.
Mitsakis, K. 1967. The Language of Romanos the Melodist. Byzantinisches Archiv 11. München.
Morzycki, M. 2015. Modification. Key Topics in Semantics and Pragmatics. Cambridge.
Moulton, J.H. 1906 (31908). A Grammar of New Testament Greek, 1. Prolegomena. Edinburgh.
Moulton, J.H. 1963. A Grammar of New Testament Greek, 2. Accidence and Word-Formation with an Appendix on Semitisms in the New Testament, edd. J. H. Moulton and W. F. Howard. London; New York.
Moulton, J. H. 1963. A Grammar of New Testament Greek, 3. Syntax, ed. N. Turner. London; New York.
Moulton, J.H. 1976. A Grammar of New Testament Greek, 4. Style, ed. N. Turner. Edinburgh.
Muchnová, D. 2013. Manner. In: G.K. Giannakis (ed.), Encyclopedia of Ancient Greek Language and Linguistics, Managing Editors Online Edition. Consulted online http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/2214-448X_eagll_COM_000002277.
Olsson, B. 1925. Papyrusbriefe aus der frühesten Römerzeit. Uppsala.
Payne, T.E. 1997. Describing Morphosyntax; A Guide for Field Linguists. Cambridge.
Perdrizet, P. and G. Lefebvre. 1919. Les graffites grecs du Memnonion d’Abydos. Nancy; Paris; Strasbourg.
Pinker, S. 1994. The Language Instinct; How the Mind Creates Language; The New Science of Language and Mind. Penguin Science. London.
Rau, J. 2006. The Greek Adverbs in -δην -δoν -δα. Glotta 82:211-220.
Robins, R.H. 1993. The Byzantine Grammarians. Their Place in History. Trends in Linguistics. Studies and Monographs 70. Berlin; New York.
Royse, J.R. 2008. Scribal Habits in Early Greek New Testament Papyri. Leiden; Boston.
Rutherford, W. G. 1890 (repr. 1912). First Greek Grammar; Syntax. London.
Schwyzer, E. 1939. Griechische Grammatik; auf der Grundlage von Karl Brugmanns griechischer Grammatik, 1. Allgemeiner Teil; Lautlehre; Wortbildung; Flexion. München.
Schwyzer, E. 1950. Griechische Grammatik; auf der Grundlage von Karl Brugmanns griechischer Grammatik, 2. Syntax und syntaktische Stilistik. Vervollständigt und herausgegeben von A. Debrunner. München.
Smyth, H.W. 1920. A Greek Grammar for Colleges. New York; Cincinnati; Chicago; Boston; Atlanta.
Spicq, C. 1978. Notes de lexicographie néo-testamentaire. Orbis biblicus et orientalis XXII/1-2. Tome I: pp. 1-524; Tome II, pp. 525-980. Fribourg, Switzerland / Göttingen, Germany.
Spicq, C. 1982. Notes de lexicographie néo-testamentaire. Supplement. Gottingen.
Stainton, R.J. 1996. Philosophical Perspectives on Language. Peterborough, Ontario.
Steen, H.A. 1938. Les clichés épistolaires dans les lettres sur papyrus grecques. C&M 1:119-176.
Tibiletti, G. 1979. Le lettere private, nei papyri greci del III e IV secolo d.C. Tra paganesimo e cristianesimo. Milano.
Tsouderos, G. (= Τζουδερός, Γ.) 2000. Η ελληνική φράση κ’ οι τρόποι έμφασης απ’ την ομηρική ελληνική ως την κοινή νεοελληνική, Ρέθεμνος 2000.
Wouters, A. 1979. The Grammatical Papyri from Graeco-Roman Egypt. Contributions to the study of the “Ars Grammatica” in Antiquity. Verhandenlingen van de Koninklijke Academie voor Wetenschappen, Letteren en Schone Kunsten van België. Klasse der Letteren, Jaargang XLI ; Nr. 92, Brussel.
Wagner, Ch. 1999. Die Septuaginta-Hapaxlegomena im Buch Jesu Sirach. Untersuchungen zu Wortwahl und Wortbildung unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des textkritischen und übersetzungstechischen Aspekts. Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 282, Berlin; New York.
Wagner, Guy. 1987. Les Oasis d’Égypte à l’époque grecque, romaine et byzantine d’après les documents grecs (Recherches de papyrologie et d’épigraphie grecques). Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale, Bibliothèque d’étude 100. Paris.
White, J.L. 1970. The Form and Function of the Body of the Greek Letter: A Study of The Letter-Body in the Non-Literary Papyri and in Paul the Apostle. Vanderbilt University, Ph.D.
Yamuza, E.R. 2000. Objective and Subjective Modality Satellites in Ancient Greek: Τάχα and Ἴσως. Glotta 76. 3./4. H:237-248.
Youtie, H.C. 1971. Βραδέως γράφων: Between Literacy and Illiteracy. GRBS 12.2:239-261. Repr. in Youtie, H. C. 1973. Scriptiunculae II. Amsterdam, 629-651.
Youtie, H.C. 1971. Ἀγράμματος: An Aspect of Greek Society in Egypt. HSPh 75:161-176.
Youtie, H.C. 1975. Ὑπογραφεύς: The Social Impact of Illiteracy in Graeco-Roman Egypt. ZPE 17:201-221.
Zilliacus, H. 1943. Zur Sprache griechischer Familienbriefe des III. Jahrhunderts n. Chr (P. Michigan 214-221). Commentationes humanarum litterarum XIII. 3. Helsinki.
Bauer: W. Bauer, Griechisch-Deutsches Wörterbuch zu den Schriften des Neuen Testaments und der übrigen urchristlichen Literatur. Durchgesehener Nachdruck der fünften, verbesserten und stark vermehrten Auflage. Berlin, 1971.
Lampe: G.W.H. Lampe, A Patristic Greek Lexicon. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1968.
LBG: E. Trapp, Lexikon zur byzantinischen Gräzität. Besonders des 9.-12. Jahrhunderts. Erstellt von Erich Trapp, unter Mitarbeit von Wolfram Hörandner, Johannes Diethart, Astrid Steiner-Weber [et al.]. Wien: Verlag der österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1994-2017.
LSJ: H.G. Liddell and R. Scott, Greek-English Lexicon. Oxford 1940. Ninth edition revised by H. Stuart Jones and R. McKenzie; A Supplement, edited by E.A. Barber and P. Maas, M. Scheller and M.L. West. Oxford: Clarendon Press 1969l; Revised Supplement, edited by P.G.W. Glare and A.D. Thompson. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996); also, the online version of LSJ (http://stephanus.tlg.uci.edu/lsj/).
WB I-II: F. Preisigke, Wörterbuch der griechischen Papyrusurkunden, mit Einschluss der griechischen Inschriften, Aufschriften, Ostraka, Mumienschilder usw. aus Ägypten. Berlin 1925-1927.
WB IV: . Kiessling, Wörterbuch der griechischen Papyrusurkunden, mit Einschluss der griechischen Inschriften, Aufschriften, Ostraka, Mumienschilder usw. aus Ägypten. 1.-5. Lieferung (ἀ-ζωφυτέω), Berlin; Marburg 1944-1993.
Searching passages from the literary texts: the online database Thesaurus Linguae Graecae (TLG): http://stephanus.tlg.uci.edu/inst/fontsel)
Searching passages from the papyri and ostraca and their dating:
Duke Databank of Documentary Papyri, DDbDP: http://papyri.info/
Heidelberger Gesamtverzeichnis der griechischen Papyrusurkunden Ägyptens, HGV: http://www.rzuser.uni-heidelberg.de/~gv0/
Searching passages from inscriptions: Searchable Greek Inscriptions of the Packard Humanities Institute: http://epigraphy.packhum.org/inscriptions/
For the editions of papyri: Checklist of editions of Greek, Latin, Demotic and Coptic Papyri, Ostraca and Tablets:
Addenda and Corrigenda will be incorporated in the epub edition (forthcoming 2023)